Kobylkin Dmitry Nikolayevich
Mazharov Aleksandr Viktorovich
The capital city of Yamalo-Nenets okrug: Salekhard.
Yamalo-Nenets region overview
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug is a federal subject of Russia, part of the Tyumen region and the Ural Federal District. Salekhard is the capital of the region.
The population of Yamalo-Nenets Okrug is about 536,000 (2015), the area - 769,250 sq. km.
Yamalo-Nenets okrug Flag and Coat of Arms
Yamalo-Nenets region history
The first information about the Yamal land and indigenous peoples living there - the Nenets and Khanty, refer to the 11th century. However, Novgorod merchants visited “the Edge of the Earth” (this is how “Yamal” is translated from the Nenets language) even earlier.
From 1187, the lower Ob was under the control of Veliky Novgorod, and, after its fall, it passed to the Moscow princes. In 1592, Tsar Feodor sent an expedition for the final conquest of the lands of the “great Ob.”
In 1595, one of the Cossack detachments built a fortress called Obdorsk (today, it is the capital of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug - Salekhard). Obdorsk fortress became the northernmost Russian settlement in Siberia at the time. Gradually the population grew, active trade in furs, mammoth bone, boats, fur clothes, and other goods was developed.
Yamalo-Nenets okrug features
Most of the Yamalo-Nenets region is located within the northern part of the West Siberian Plain, a small part is located on the eastern slope of the Ural mountains. From the north it is washed by the Kara Sea. This province belongs to the regions of the Far North, more than half of its territory is located beyond the Arctic Circle.
The territory of the Yamalo-Nenets okrug is located in three climatic zones: arctic, subarctic and the zone of the northern strip of the West Siberian lowland. The climate is determined by the presence of permafrost and the cold Kara Sea, the abundance of bays, rivers, marshes, and lakes. Frequent magnetic storms are accompanied by colorful northern lights.
In general, the climate of this region is characterized by a long winter (up to 8 months) and a short summer, strong winds, a small amount of snow cover. The average annual air temperature is negative, in the Far North it reaches minus 10 degrees Celsius. The minimum temperature in winter drops to minus 55 degrees Celsius, in summer - up to plus 30 degrees Celsius.
The name of the region mentions the Nenets as the titular nationality inhabiting this territory, despite the fact that the majority of the local population is Russian. The ethnic composition of the population according to the 2010 census: Russians (61.7%), Ukrainians (9.7%), Nenets (5.9%), Tatars (5.6%), Khanty (1.9%).
The largest cities and towns are Novy Urengoy (111,000), Noyabrsk (106,600), Salekhard (48,300), Nadym (45,000).
Natural resources of the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region
The region’s water resources are rich and diverse: the coast of the Kara Sea, numerous bays, rivers, lakes, and underground waters. Ob Bay is one of the largest sea bays in the Russian Arctic. In total, there are about 300 thousand lakes and 48 thousand rivers, the largest of which are the Ob, Nadym, Taz, and Pur.
Yamalo-Nenets okrug is on the leading places in Russia for hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas and oil. Today, Yamal produces about 90% of all natural gas in Russia (about 20% of global production) and more than 14% of Russian oil and gas condensate. In the Polar Urals, chrome, manganese, bauxite, and gold are mined.
At the same time, a huge part of the region’s natural reserves is still waiting for industrial development. One of the long-term projects is the development of the gas reserves of the peninsula and the shelf of the Kara Sea. There are 11 gas-bearing and 15 oil and gas condensate fields discovered here. Potential resources including gas on the shelf are estimated at 50.5 trillion cubic meters, liquid hydrocarbons - more than 5 billion tons.
One of the peculiarities of Yamal is that industrial development of natural resources and traditional activities of the indigenous population of the Far North coexist together. The world’s largest reindeer herd is grazed here - more than 600 thousand heads. The tenth part of the whole area of the region - about 8 million hectares - is a specially protected natural area.
Government - http://xn--80aealotwbjpid2k.xn--80aze9d.xn--p1ai/
Travel - http://yamaltour.ru
Borisov Yegor Afanasyevich
Vasilyev Vladimir Nikolayevich
The capital city of Sakha Republic: Yakutsk.
Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is the largest federal subject of Russia located in the north-eastern part of Siberia, in the Far Eastern Federal District. Yakutsk is the capital city of the region.
The population of Yakutia is about 962,000 (2015), the area - 3,083,523 sq. km.
Sakha republic Flag and Coat of Arms
According to archaeological studies, ancient people inhabited the Lena River region in the early Paleolithic. A lot of archaeological monuments dated from 300,000 to 10,000 years ago were found. From the middle of the first millennium AD, the ancestors of the Evens and Evenks began to settle here. By the 13th century, the Tungusic tribes settled in the Middle Lena, Viluy, Olekma.
The arrival of the ancestors of the Yakuts or Sakha (endonym) forced them to move to the west and east of the Lena. Livestock development brought major changes in the economic life of the region. The Yakuts brought handicraft production (blacksmithing, jewelry, pottery etc.) and construction of permanent dwellings.
In the first quarter of the 17th century, the Cossacks reached the banks of the Lena River. The fortified settlements of Lensky (Yakutsk), Zhigansk, Verkhoyansk, Zashiversk, Srednekolymsk were founded. They became the advanced posts for Russian colonists, who moved to the northeast Asia.
Yakutia is the largest administrative and territorial region in the world and the largest subject of the Russian Federation. Yakutia is larger than Argentina - the eighth largest country in the world. The territory of the republic stretches for 2,500 km from north to south and 2,000 km from west to east. The distance from Moscow to Yakutsk by roads is about 8,300 km.
Almost half of the region (about 40%) is located in the Arctic Circle. In the north the Sakha Republic is washed by the Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea. The total length of the coastline exceeds 4,500 km. Yakutia is characterized by the diversity of natural conditions and resources.
The Republic of Sakha is often called the land of rivers (over 700,000) and lakes (over 800,000). The total length of all the rivers is about 2 million km. The largest navigable rivers are the Lena (4,400 km), Viluy (2,650 km), Olenek (2,292 km), Aldan (2,273 km), Kolyma (2,129 km), Indigirka (1,726 km), Olekma (1,436 km), Anabar (939 km), and Yana (872 km).
The climate is sharply continental with long winters and short summers. It is one of the coldest places in the world. The Cold Pole of the Northern Hemisphere is located in Oymyakon, one of the coldest permanently inhabited locales on Earth, in winter the temperature can drop below 65 degrees Celsius. April and October are winter months in Yakutia. Almost the entire territory of the region is located in the permafrost zone.
The national composition according to the 2010 Census: Yakuts (49.9%), Russians (37.8%), Evenks (2.2%), Ukrainians (2.2%), Evens (1.6%), Tatars (0.9%). The largest cities and towns are Yakutsk (304,000) Neryungri (57,700), Mirny (34,800), Lensk (23,600), Aldan (20,800). Yakutsk is the largest city in the world located in the permafrost zone.
State holidays of Yakutia:
Yakutia resources and economy
Today, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) has a developed mining industry extracting gold, diamonds, oil, natural gas, coal, and various metals. Elkonskoye uranium deposit, the largest in Russia, is located here. Yakutia is also known for its furs and mammoth tusks.
The main industries are non-ferrous metallurgy, mining of diamonds and gold (about 90% of all Russian diamonds and 24% of gold), coal mining, forest and wood processing, light and food industries. The tourism industry is developing rapidly. Agriculture produces milk, meat, vegetables, furs, reindeer.
Most of the cargo is transported by waterways. In the navigation period, the main waterways are the Lena (with its tributaries the Vilyui and Aldan), Yana, Indigirka, and Kolyma. Goods to the northern districts of the republic are delivered by the Northern Sea Route.
In 2008, the federal highway “Kolyma” (Yakutsk-Magadan) was opened for year-round exploitation. Due to the low number of roads, air transport is relatively well developed. There are more than 30 airports in the republic.
Places of interest in Yakutia
Yakutia is one of the rare places on our planet with preserved primeval nature and an amazing variety of flora and fauna. The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) has over 30% of Russian wildlife. More than 90% of the territory is unaffected or slightly affected by industrial development.
The main attractions of Yakutia are:
Kisilyakh Mount (“stone people” in the Yakut language) is known for its picturesque piles of stones resembling blurry silhouettes of people.
Lena and Sinskiye Pillars - two series of steep, vertical cliffs located 200 km from Yakutsk, on the banks of the Lena and Sinyaya rivers. These rocks have different fancy shapes: columns, spiers and towers. Many of them have traces of ancient rock paintings.
Memorial Museum “Yakutsk political exile” in the village of Cherkyokh - an open-air museum that includes two dozen objects. The main purpose of the museum is to demonstrate how Russian culture, brought to Yakutia by political exiles, affected the lives of local people.
Lensky historical and architectural museum-reserve “Druzhba” (“friendship”) in Sottintsy village, 70 km from Yakutsk, has interesting old wooden monuments, the oldest of them date back to the 17th century.
Olekminsk Reserve - one of the most interesting nature reserves of Yakutia with a lot of bears, moose, deer and other wildlife.
Lake Ulakhan-Ary-Kyuyele located on Ulakhan-Ary Island in Anabar national district.
Ust-Vilyusky National Park located in the scenic valley between the rivers of Lyampushka and Dyanyshka, near Verkhoyansk Range.
Zoo “Orto-Doydu”, located 50 km south of Yakutsk, has more than 150 animals (white-tailed eagles, golden eagles, spotted deer, Siberian tigers, Asian spruce grouse and others).
Diamond quarry “Mir” in the town of Mirny is a man-made attraction. It is one of the largest quarries in the world with the diameter of 1,200 meters.
Government - https://www.sakha.gov.ru/
News - https://ykt.ru/
About Yakutia - http://yatoday.ru
Travel - http://www.yakutiatravel.com
Tsybulsky Aleksandr Vitaliyevich
Rakhmilevich Pavel Zakharovich
The capital city of Nenets okrug: Naryan-Mar.
Nenets okrug overview
Nenets autonomous okrug is a federal subject of Russia, part of the North-West Federal District. According to the Statute of the Arkhangelsk region, it is also part of the Arkhangelsk region. Naryan-Mar is the capital city of Nenetsia.
The population of Nenets autonomous okrug is about 44,000 (2015), the area 176,810 sq. km.
Nenets okrug Flag and Coat of Arms
Nenets region history
The first settlements on the territory of the region appeared in the 8th millennium BC, during the Paleolithic. There are a lot of sites of the Bronze Age (2,000-1,000 BC). In the 5th-13th centuries, undefined tribes lived here, Russians called them “pechera”, Nenets - “sirtya”.
Nenets people migrated to the territory of the region from the Lower Ob in 1,000 AD. At the same time, the colonization of extreme north-east of Europe by Novgorod people began. In the 9th century, Russian chronicles mentioned Pechora and Yugra dependent on the Kievan princes.
Novgorod power over Pechora was finally established in the 13th-15th centuries. After Novgorod was joined to Moscow (1478), the Moscow state also got the territory of the present Nenets autonomous region.
In 1500, the military expedition of the prince Semyon Kurbski to Pechora founded the fortress of Pustozersk. This non-preserved town was the administrative and trade center of all the lands from Mezen to the Urals for ages.
The Lower Pechora and the coast of the Barents Sea were inhabited by such peoples as Russians (known as Pomors), Nenets, Komi-Zyryans, Komi-Permyaks, and Komi-Izhemts. In the 18th century, Pomors began to settle on Kanin Peninsula.
In the 19th and the early 20th centuries, the territory of the region was part of Arkhangelsk gubernia. A separate region was founded in 1929 and named Nenets national okrug. In 1977, it became Nenets autonomous okrug.
Nenets region features
Nenets okrug is located in the north of the East European Plain, a large part of it is situated above the Arctic Circle. The territory of the province, which includes the islands of Kolguyev and Vaygach, Kanin Peninsula, is washed by the White, Barents, Pechora, and Kara Seas of the Arctic Ocean.
Nenets autonomous okrug is the most sparsely populated region of the Russian Federation. The national composition according to the 2010 Census: Russians (63.3%), Nenets (17.8%), Komi (8.6%).
The climate is subarctic, on the coast - temperate maritime. The average temperature in January ranges from minus 22 degrees Celsius in the southeast to minus 3 degrees Celsius on the coast, in July - from plus 16 to plus 8 degrees Celsius respectively. More than 90% of the territory is located in the zones of tundra and forest tundra.
Nenets State Nature Reserve is located on the territory of the region. It was created to protect the ecosystems of Eastern European tundra and coastal waters of the Barents Sea. To the west of the Kara River, there is Kara meteorite crater, which is 65 km in diameter.
Nenets okrug economy
The socio-economic development of the region is determined by its natural resources. Nenets okrug is located in the northern part of the Timan-Pechora Basin rich in oil and natural gas fields. More than 80 deposits of hydrocarbon resources were discovered. Various products of the oil industry account for more than 90% of the total industrial output.
Side by side with natural gas and oil, the fuel and power resources of the region also include coal. There are also deposits of manganese, nickel, copper, molybdenum, gold, and diamonds. Lead, zinc and copper ores were discovered on Vaygach Island.
Reindeer husbandry is one of the traditional sectors of the local agriculture. In 2010, the reindeer population was about 165 thousand.
Government - http://www.adm-nao.ru
Travel - http://www.visitnao.ru
Tarasenko Andrey Vladimirovich
The capital city of Primorsky krai: Vladivostok.
Primorsky krai overview
Primorsky krai (Primorye) is a federal subject of Russia located in the south-eastern part of the country, in the south of the Far East, part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Vladivostok is the capital city of the region.
The population of Primorye is about 1,924,000 (2015), the area - 164,673 sq. km.
Primorsky krai Flag and Coat of Arms
Primorsky krai history
The first people settled in the region more than 30 thousand years ago. According to ancient legends, the coastal line was densely inhabited. In the Middle Ages, there were three empires on the territory of Primorye, which successively replaced each other: Bohai (698-926), Jin (1115-1234), Eastern Xia (1215-1233).
In the early 13th century, the territory of East Asia suffered the Mongol invasion. This led to the fall of the empire of Jin, but some provinces in the east preserved independence and formed an independent state known as Eastern Xia. In 1233, after another invasion this state ceased to exist too.
After that, the region was in ruins and attracted people persecuted in surrounding countries (bandits, adventurers, political dissidents). The first documented Russian presence in the region dates back to the summer of 1655, when the northern Primorye was visited by Russian Cossacks under the command of Onuphrius Stepanov.
Primorsky krai features
Primorsky krai is located in the south of the Far East, in the south-eastern part of the Russian Federation. It is bordered by Khabarovsk krai in the north, China in the west, North Korea in the south-west, and is washed by the Japan Sea in the south and east. The largest cities are Vladivostok (606,500), Ussuriysk (168,600), Nakhodka (153,500), Artem (105,300).
The maximum length of the Primorsky region (from the mouth of the Tumannaya River to the source of the Samarga River) is about 900 km, the maximum width (from the valley of the Ussuri River to the coast of the Sea of Japan) - about 280 km. The highest peak is Mount Anik (1,933 meters) located in the north-easton of the region, near the border with Khabarovsk krai.
The climate of Primorye is temperate monsoon. Winters are dry and cold with sunny weather; springs are long, cool, with frequent changes of temperature; summers are warm and humid; autumns as a rule are warm and dry.
The main peculiarity - lots of precipitation and fog in summer. Summer is the period of typhoons. The average temperature in July is about plus 17-21 degrees Celsius, in January - minus 8-23 degrees Celsius.
Primorsky krai economy
A number of large and unique deposits of various minerals have been discovered in Primorye. This region has the most powerful mining industry in the Far East of Russia. There are about 100 coal deposits (2.4 billion tons), 30 deposits of tin, 15 deposits of complex ores containing zinc, lead, copper, and silver. Gold deposits are located both in the south of the region and in the north.
The largest in Russia deposit of boron is located near the town of Dalnegorsk. Several phosphorite deposits are discovered on the shelf of the Sea of Japan. There are also several small oil fields, large deposits of germanium. Mountain rivers have significant hydropower potential. Diverse forests cover about 80% of the territory.
Primorsky krai is the most developed region in the Russian Far East due to its favorable geographic location and abundance of various natural resources. The local economy is based on such industries as mining, timber, fisheries, trade, shipbuilding and repairing.
Primorye has a relatively well-developed transportation network. The main traffic artery is the eastern section of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Due to its proximity to Japan and the Republic of Korea (imports of relatively cheap used cars), Primorsky krai occupies the first place in Russia in the number of vehicles in the population.
The seaports of Primorsky krai play an important role in the economy of Russia. The largest container terminals in the Russian Far East are located here. Regional and international air flights are carried out from Vladivostok International Airport.
Places of interest in the Primorsky region
Primorsky krai is known for its rich flora and fauna, the variety of landscapes, the warm sea in the south, springs with healing water. All this creates favorable conditions for tourism development.
In Primorye, there are more than 500 unique natural sites (lakes, waterfalls, ancient extinct volcanoes, caves, bays). There are six nature reserves and three national parks:
The following places of interest are also noteworthy:
Government - www.primorsky.ru/
Travel - http://tour.primorsky.ru
News - http://primamedia.ru/
Pechony Vladimir Petrovich
Penyevskaya Irina Stanislavovna
The capital city of Magadan oblast: Magadan.
Magadan oblast overview
Magadan oblast is a federal subject of Russia located in the north-eastern part of the country, part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Magadan is the capital city of the region.
The population of Magadan oblast is about 146,000 (2015), the area - 462,464 sq. km.
Magadan oblast Flag and Coat of Arms
Magadan region history
People settled in the Magadan region since the Paleolithic times. The ancestors of the Indians who came to America through Beringia, the land bridge between Siberia and Alaska, passed through the territory of the region.
The tribes of Koryaks lived on the northern shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. They mastered the sea mammal hunting, domesticated reindeer and began to colonize the Kamchatka Peninsula. The continental part of the Magadan region, the upper Kolyma River and its tributaries were inhabited by Yukagirs - skilled hunters and fishermen with a rich oral literary tradition and even the rudiments of writing. In the 16th century, Evens, nomadic herders, began to settle in the Magadan region.
In the 17th century, the first Russians came to the region. In 1639, Ivan Moskvitin at the head of Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk Cossacks was the first Russian who reached the Pacific Ocean and the Tauy River in the southwest of the present Magadan region.
Magadan region features
The shore of the Sea of Okhotsk is the southern boundary of Magadan oblast. The territory of the region stretches for 930 km from north to south and 960 km from west to east. The main river of the region is the Kolyma. Magadan sea port is the main transport gateway. Also there is an international airport in Magadan - the only city and industrial center of the region.
The entire territory of Magadan oblast refers to regions of the Far North. About 75% of the territory is occupied by tundra and forest tundra. The climate is severe, winters last 6-7,5 months. The average annual temperature is minus 2.8 degrees Celsius. In winter, the temperature in the central districts falls below minus 40-50 degrees Celsius, in summer - rises to plus 30 degrees Celsius.
Magadan oblast, also known as Kolyma, is rich in mineral resources: gold, silver, tin, coal, lignite, molybdenum, cobalt, tungsten, lead, zinc, copper, iron, rhenium. It is in the top ten regions of Russia for potential mineral resources and one of the largest gold provinces in the world. Since 1928, the Magadan region produced more than 3,000 tons of gold, 10,000 tons of silver, 73,000 tons of tin, 83 million tons of coal.
One of the promising directions of development of the mining industry is the implementation of the project on search and industrial development of oil and natural gas deposits of the Magadan shelf area. There are various species of fur-bearing animals: ermines, otters, weasels, gluttons, lynxes, Arctic foxes, foxes, and wolves. The fishing industry is the second most important after mining.
Today, Magadan oblast is home to about 6,000 representatives of indigenous peoples: Evens, Koryaks, Yukagirs, Chukchi, and others. Kamchadals, the descendants of the first Russian settlers who mingled with the natives, should also be mentioned. Their culture is characterized by a combination of Russian antiquity, long forgotten in European Russia, with the culture of the indigenous peoples of the North.
Official Governmental Website - https://www.49gov.ru/